RESEARCH: studies I shared this week: 5 - 11 September 2022

All of the studies I've shared (~500 studies) are available on the RESOURCES PAGE.

TRAINING: Comparison of 4 Different Cooldown Strategies on Lower-Leg Temperature, Blood Lactate Concentration, and Fatigue Perception After Intense Running


  • Subjects randomly experienced 4 different 30-minute cooldown strategies each session:
  • 1) AR (10-min treadmill walk + 10-min static stretch + 10-min shower)
  • 2) cold-water walk (10-min shower + 20-min walk in cold water)
  • 3) cold-water sit (10-min shower + 20-min sit in cold water)
  • 4) passive recovery (10-min shower + 20-min passive recovery)
  • The effect of reducing blood lactate concentration and fatigue perception were similar in the 4 cooldown strategies.
  • We suggest selecting the appropriate method while considering the specific goal, available time, facility, and accessibility.

NUTRITION: Dietary Inorganic Nitrate as an Ergogenic Aid

The modified Delphi technique was used to establish the views of 12 expert panel members on the use of dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid.


  1. The effects of dietary nitrate appear to be diminished in individuals with a higher aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption [V̇O2peak] > 60 ml/kg/min), and therefore, aerobic fitness should be taken into account when considering use of dietary nitrate as an ergogenic aid.
  2. It is recommended that athletes looking to benefit from dietary nitrate supplementation should consume 8–16 mmol nitrate acutely or 4–16 mmol/day nitrate chronically (with the final dose ingested 2–4 h pre-exercise) to maximise ergogenic effects.
  3. Acute nitrate supplementation up to ~ 16 mmol is believed to be safe, although the safety of chronic nitrate supplementation requires further investigation.

SLEEP: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression on the Effects of Carbohydrates on Sleep


  1. Compared to high carbohydrate (HCI), low carbohydrate intake (LCI) moderately increased duration and proportion of N3 sleep stage.
  2. HCI prolonged rapid eye movement (REM) stage duration and proportion, compared to LCI.
  3. The quality of carbohydrate intake did not affect sleep stages.
  4. Results of the present meta-analysis support the employ of CHO quantity as a reasonable non-pharmacological tool for modification of sleep architecture, if needed. As appropriate, high CHO quantity could be used to potentially increase REM, while lower CHO could be useful to increase N3 sleep stage.

EQUIPMENT: Superimposing neuromuscular electrical stimulation onto voluntary contractions to improve muscle strength and mass


  1. Training and rehabilitation programmes involving neuromuscular electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary contractions (NMES+) have gained popularity in the last decades.
  2. The highest improvements were found when NMES was superimposed on sub-maximal exercises involving both concentric and eccentric contractions.
  3. This review revealed that training based on NMES+ can induce a significant improvement of muscle strength in both healthy and orthopaedic individuals.

SUPPLEMENT: Effect of Acetaminophen on Endurance Cycling Performance in Trained Triathletes in Hot and Humid Conditions


  1. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acetaminophen (ACT, also known as paracetamol) on physiological and perceptual variables during steady-state and time-trial cycling performance of trained triathletes in hot and humid conditions.
  2. The dose was 20mg/kg consumed 60' before the time-trial.
  3. There was no difference in performance in the ACT trial compared with placebo, nor were there differences in gastrointestinal and skin temperature, thermal sensation and comfort, or fluid balance between trials.
  4. Existing precooling and percooling strategies appear to be more appropriate for endurance cycling performance in the heat.

STRENGTH: The Minimum Effective Training Dose Required to Increase 1RM Strength in Resistance-Trained Men


  1. The authors set out to answer "what is the minimum one needs to do to increase 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength?".
  2. The results of the present systematic review suggest that performing a single set of 6-12 repetitions with loads ranging from approximately 70-85% 1RM 2-3 times per week with high intensity of effort (reaching volitional or momentary failure) for 8-12 weeks can produce suboptimal, yet significant increases in SQ and BP 1RM strength in resistance-trained men.

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