RESEARCH: studies I shared this week: 26 September to 2 October 2022

All of the studies I've shared (~500 studies) are available on the RESOURCES PAGE.

STRENGTH: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Resistance Training on Quality of Life, Depression, Muscle Strength, and Functional Exercise Capacity in Older Adults Aged 60 Years or More


  1. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of resistance training on quality of life, depression, muscle strength, and functional exercise capacity in older adults (≥60 years).
  2. Resistance training significantly improved physical functioning, mental health, bodily pain, general health, social functioning, and mental component score subscales.
  3. Moreover, depression, upper-limb muscle strength, lower-limb muscle strength, and handgrip muscle strength significantly improved following resistance training.
  4. Resistance training can be effective for improving most domains of quality of life, upper- and lower-limb muscle strength, handgrip strength, and depression in aged people.

PRACTICAL TAKEAWAY - it's important to continue training as we age and in particular strength training is a vital aspect to maintain quality of life.

HRV: Heart Rate Variability, Neuromuscular and Perceptual Recovery Following Resistance Training


  1. We quantified associations between changes in heart rate variability (HRV), neuromuscular and perceptual recovery following intense resistance training (RT).
  2. All parameters worsened at immediate post (IP) training.
  3. LnRMSSD measures were not different from baseline by 24 h.
  4. Neuromuscular markers were not different from pre-RT by 48 h.
  5. Perceptual measures remained suppressed at 48 h.
  6. No significant associations among ∆ variables were observed.

PRACTICAL TAKEAWAY - recovery markers showed differing timeframes of recovery. The authors explain that "practitioners [should] avoid using recovery status of one system (i.e., cardiac-autonomic) to infer that of another (i.e., neuromuscular or perceived psychological), but that specificity of testing must also be considered for parameter-selection within a given system.

FORM: There is no global running pattern more economic than another at endurance running speeds


  1. The authors aimed to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE) at endurance running speeds and the global running pattern quantified by both subjective and objective measures.
  2. Correlations between RE and Volodalen Score (V Score) and duty factor and RE were negligible and non-significant across speeds tested.
  3. These findings suggest there is no global running pattern more economic than another at endurance running speeds.

PRACTICAL TAKEAWAY - we should not try to modify or adapt our running form at running endurance speeds to improve economy.

HRV: Monitoring ultra-short heart rate variability and heart rate-running speed index in an elite soccer player


  1. In early, mid, and late 5-day blocks of the training period, wellness, HRV and HR-RS Index were recorded. Hooper Index, as an overall wellness measure, was computed by summing four subsets (i.e. perceived sleep quality and quantities of stress, muscle fatigue, and muscle soreness) provided by the player each morning, on a daily basis.
  2. Heart rate-running speed (HR-RS) Index was computed using the average heart rate and running speeds (average and speed peak) collected during the first 4 min of jogging exercise implemented in the early part of selected field-based training sessions.
  3. The results showed a nearly perfect association and likely trivial difference between 1-min and 5-min Ln RMSSD.
  4. The HR-RS seems to be a more convenient alternative to more strictly standardized submaximal HRex tests that demonstrated expected progressive improvements throughout preseason training in this athlete.

PRACTICAL TAKEAWAY - 1' HRV measurements are accurate and long enough to determine the state of our physiology.

CHO: Addition of Fructose to a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Improves Cycling Endurance Capacity in Trained Cyclists


  1. It is currently recommended to athletes at their preevent meal (i.e., breakfast) to consume 1–4 g of CHOs per kilogram of body mass, and the guidelines provide little detail about what the most appropriate CHO type is.
  2. The main objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that combining fructose with glucose-based CHOs (i.e., fructose and rice) at breakfast as opposed to having only glucose-based CHOs (i.e., dextrose and rice) leads to improved endurance exercise capacity after an overnight fast.
  3. Task failure time was ~5% greater for FRU + RACE: 137.03 ± 22.72 min [FRU + RICE] to 130.06 ± 19.87 min [GLU + RICE] (with statistically significant difference between them; p = .046)

PRACTICAL TAKEAWAY - make sure to include fructose with your pre-event meal. Good options could be rice with jam or honey.

NUTRITION - PRO: Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?


  1. The post-exercise period is widely considered the most critical part of nutrient timing. Theoretically, consuming the proper ratio of nutrients during this time not only initiates the rebuilding of damaged muscle tissue and restoration of energy reserves, but it does so in a supercompensated fashion that enhances both body composition and exercise performance.
  2. The purpose of this paper will be twofold: 1) to review the existing literature on the effects of nutrient timing with respect to post-exercise muscular adaptations, and; 2) to draw relevant conclusions that allow practical, evidence-based nutritional recommendations
  3. In the case of resistance training after an overnight fast, it would make sense to provide immediate nutritional intervention--ideally in the form of a combination of protein and carbohydrate--for the purposes of promoting muscle protein synthesis and reducing proteolysis, thereby switching a net catabolic state into an anabolic one.
  4. Despite claims that immediate post-exercise nutritional intake is essential to maximize hypertrophic gains, evidence-based support for such an “anabolic window of opportunity” is far from definitive.
  5. High-quality protein dosed at 0.4–0.5 g/kg of LBM at both pre- and post-exercise is a simple, relatively fail-safe general guideline that reflects the current evidence showing a maximal acute anabolic effect of 20–40g.

PRACTICAL TAKEAWAY - pragmatically it makes sense to consume a post-training meal soon after you train so you don't forget. However, it's not a reason to worry or stress if you don't eat within a certain window of time.

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