RESEARCH: studies I shared this week: 15-21 August 2022

All of the studies I've shared (~500 studies) are available on the RESOURCES PAGE.

NUTRITION: Associations between food portion sizes, insulin resistance, VO2 max and metabolic syndrome in European adolescents


  1. Portion size is an important determinants of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
  2. Larger PS from vegetables in both gender and milk, yoghurt, and milk beverages in males were associated with higher VO2 max, while larger PS from margarines and vegetable oils were associated with lower VO2 max.
  3. Larger PS from food with higher content of sugar were associated with higher metabolic risk score.

TRAINING: TID: Training Intensity Distribution, Training Volume, and Periodization Models in Elite Swimmers


  1. The sprint swimmers typically followed a polarized and threshold TID.
  2. The middle-distance swimmers followed a threshold and pyramidal TID.
  3. The long-distance swimmers primarily followed a pyramidal TID.
  4. The periodization model identified in the majority of studies selected is characterized by wave-like cycles in units like mesocycles to promote physiological adaptations and skill acquisition.
  5. Highly trained swimmers follow a training volume and TID based on their primary event.

PHYSIOLOGY: Neuromuscular Fatigue After Long-Duration Adventure Racing in Adolescent Athletes


  1. Twenty trained male adolescents (aged 14–17 y) performed an adventure race of 68.5 km...The race completion time was 05:38 (00:20) hours.
  2. The adventure race induced a moderate fatigue, which was mainly explained by central factors without significant peripheral fatigue.
  3. Understanding fatigue can help us manage it. Some excellent advice here: how to resist slowing down.

HEAT: Effect of heat pre-conditioning on recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage


  1. Twenty male participants were equally assigned to a control (CON) and an experimental group (HEAT), and performed a 30-min downhill run (DHR) to elicit exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD).
  2. HEAT group received three consecutive days of heat exposure (45.1min of hot water immersion at 42°C) prior to DHR.
  3. Pre-heat treatment decreased the magnitude of strength loss and muscle soreness, as well as attenuated the decline in microvascular function following EIMD.
  4. Pre heat treatment may be a promising pre-conditioning tool when embarking on intensified training periods or competition.

NUTRITION: Effect of Previous-Day Alcohol Ingestion on Muscle Function and Performance of Severe-Intensity Exercise


  1. On 2 occasions, 12 recreationally active individuals reported to the Applied Physiology Laboratory in the evening and ingested a beverage containing either 1.09 g ethanol·kg−1 fat-free body mass (ALC condition) or water (PLA condition).
  2. The following morning, they completed a hangover symptom questionnaire, vertical jumps, isometric midthigh pulls, biceps curls, and a constant-power cycle ergometer test to exhaustion.
  3. Time to exhaustion in the cycle ergometer tests was less (P = .03) in the ALC condition.
  4. Previous-day alcohol consumption significantly reduces morning-after performance of severe-intensity exercise.
  5. Practitioners should educate their athletes, especially those whose events rely on anaerobic capacity and/or a rapid response of the aerobic pathways, of the adverse effect of previous-day alcohol consumption on performance.

SUPPLEMENTS: Creatine O'Clock: Does Timing of Ingestion Really Influence Muscle Mass and Performance?


  1. It is becoming quite clear that creatine supplementation (~5–9 g·day−1 for up to 32 weeks) during a resistance training program is a well-tolerated (no adverse events reported), effective strategy to augment measures of muscle mass and strength.
  2. To date, it appears that pre-exercise (several hours before or immediately prior to training sessions) and post-exercise (immediately following or several hours after training sessions) creatine ingestion produce similar muscle benefits in young and older adults.
  3. Further, whether the timed co-ingestion of creatine with other compounds such as carbohydrates and protein compared to creatine alone influences muscle mass and performance remains to be determined.
  4. The current body of research does not support timed creatine supplementation prescription in relation to long(er) term training or in combination with other ingredients.

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